Fifth Crusade (1217 – 1221)
Despite the tragic outcome of the Children’s Crusade Pope Innocent III called for the Fifth Crusade already on Fourth Lateran Council in 1215. He died one year later when started first preparations for the Crusade but his successor Pope Honorius III continued the crusade movement to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims. Honorius III managed to persuade King Andrew II of Hungary and Duke Leopold VI of Austria to lead their forces to Egypt as it was suggested by John of Brienne, ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Crusaders captured Damietta in 1219 and Al-Kamil, the Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt offered the Crusaders all holy cities and western part of the Kingdom of Jerusalem to the Jordan River in return for peace treaty and their departure from Egypt. The Crusaders rejected the offer because they considered the offered territory could not be properly defended and because the papal legate advised against permanent peace treaties with the Muslims. In addition, the Crusaders also hoped to conquer whole Egypt. However, their march to Cairo in 1221 turned out to be a failure. Al-Kamil flooded the Nile Valley and forced the Crusaders to seek a peace treaty.