Ninth Crusade (1271 – 1272)
The Ninth Crusade was launched by future Edward I of England who was on the way to the Eighth Crusade when Louis XI of France died. Edward landed in Sicily where he overwintered and sealed to Acre in spring of 1271 with hope to gather an army. However, the barons did not support him as he assumed, while Venice and Genoa eager to pursue profitable export of weapons, armor and slaves opposed his plans.
One year after his arrival to Acre, Edward was forced to negotiate with the Mamluk Sultan Baybars I who ordered his assassination. The assassination attempt failed but Edward hurried back to England after receiving news of King Henry III being seriously ill and never returned to the Holy Land.
The Crusades to the Holy Land against the Muslims ended with the Ninth Crusade. In 1291, fell the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land (Acre), while the attempts to organize a Crusade against the Ottoman Turks in the 14th century failed because of conflicts between the European powers and decline of chivalry and knighthood.