Sixth Crusade (1228 – 1229)
The Sixth Crusade was launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor without a papal blessing and without any religious motives. Frederick was even excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX in 1227 for his reluctance to go to the Crusade.
Frederic II organized and led his troops to Acre in September 1228 but the Christian nobility in Palestine was not thrilled about his arrival. The leaders of military orders forbade their troops to pay regard to Frederick, while friars even openly opposed the Holy Roman Emperor. Despite that Frederick II started to negotiate with Sultan of Egypt, Al-Kamil who felt threatened by the Seljuk invasions on the east and struggled for power with his brother al-Mu’azzam. In February 1229, Frederick and Al-Kamil reached an agreement according to which Frederick gained Jaffa, Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth, and crowned himself King of Jerusalem. However, when the ten-year truce expired Jerusalem was captured by the Egyptian Muslims in alliance with the Turks in 1244.