Battle of Bouvines (1214)
The Battle of Bouvines was fought between the French army and allied English, Flemish and Welf forces under leadership of Holy Roman Emperor, Otto IV of Brunswick southeast to present-day Lille in the county of Flanders on July 27, 1214. The outcome of the battle was a decisive French victory and resulted in the emergence of France as the leading European power. John of England was forced to cede all English lands on the Continent except for Aquitaine and Gascony to Philip II of France, while Otto IV had to flee and leave over the Imperial crown to his rival Frederick II Hohenstaufen. Otto IV did not give up his claims to the German throne until his death in 1218 but he lost all his influence after the Battle of Bouvines. Defeat at Bouvines also greatly weakened the authority of John of England who was forced to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215 which greatly limited the royal power.