Battle of Syllaeum (677)
The Battle of Syllaeum was a naval battle fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate which took place on the Sea of Marmara in 677. The Battle of Syllaeum is notable for the use of the Greek fire, a flammable petroleum-based mixture that was thrown in pots or discharged from tubes and could not be put out with water, for the first time in history. The Byzantines destroyed the Arab fleet with Greek fire launched from tubes mounted on ship prows and forced them to lift the siege of Constantinople. Byzantine victory at the Battle of Syllaeum also ended the immediate Arab threat to Europe for almost three decades.