Medieval Europe (13th to 15th c.)
The period from the Mongol invasion to the end of Reconquista from the 13th to the 15th century was characterized by great political changes. The Western Europe was marked by the emergence of centralized nation-states: England, France and the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, while Eastern Europe saw the rise of the Grand Duchy of Muscovy, a predecessor of the Russian national state.
At the same time when the Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula finally collapsed and Grand Duchy of Muscovy finally defeated the Golden Horde, Southeastern Europe and the Byzantine Empire were subjugated by the Ottoman Empire. The expansion of the Ottoman Empire had a great impact on the future development of the Balkan Peninsula but it greatly effected the rest of Europe as well.