The territory of Wallachia located in today’s Romania between the Carpathian Mountains and Danube River was ruled by Pechenegs, the Byzantine Empire and Cumans until it finally became a Hungarian vassal principality. The Principality of Wallachia was founded in 1290 by Radu Negru who was a Hungarian vassal but the Wallachian rulers retained wide autonomy.
Voivod Besarab I (1317-1352) successfully withstood the Byzantine pressure on the west, launched a campaign against the Mongols on the east and seized Bessarabia between 1325 and 1328. Besarab I defeated the Hungarian forces in the Battle of Posada in 1330 and achieved independence of Wallachia. Mircea the Elder (1386-1418) managed to repulse the Ottoman threat and defeated Ottomans in several battles including the Battle of Rovine in 1394. He withstood invasion attempt of the Ottomans following the defeat of allied Christian forces against the Ottomans in the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, conquered Moldavia in 1400 and Dobruja between 1404 and 1406. However, Mircea was forced to pay tribute to the Ottoman Sultan and accept the Ottoman suzerainty by the end of his reign.
Prince Vlad III the Impaler (Dracula) (1456-1462) refused to pay the tribute to the Ottoman Empire in 1459 and devastated the Ottoman lands from the Danube River to the Black Sea in 1461. Ottomans invaded Wallachia and captured its capital Targoviste but Vlad escorted to guerrilla war and forced the Ottomans to retreat. Vlad III the Impaler was deposed by the Wallachian nobility in 1462 and Wallachia was finally subjugated by the Ottoman Empire between 1462 and 1476.