Medieval Europe (9th to 13th c.)
Medieval Europe saw further changes on the political map of Europe from the 9th to the 13th century. The period was marked by the rise of states which evolved into the leading European powers: England, France, Germany, the Christian Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula and Scandinavian Kingdoms. Slavic states emerged in Eastern and Southeastern Europe and developed into powerful medieval kingdoms. The period from the 9th to the 13th century was also characterized by the first territorial expansion of European states out of Europe, while Europe itself was invaded by the Hungarians, a Finno-Ugric people from beyond the Ural Mountains who established their kingdom in the Pannonian Plain.