Caliphate of Cordoba
Emir Abd-ar-rahman III (919-961) proclaimed himself Caliph in 929 after the establishment of the Fatimid Caliphate in Northern Africa (909). Thus the Emirate of Cordoba became Caliphate of Cordoba and ruled Al-Andalus until 1031 when the Caliphate fractured into numerous independent kingdoms known as the Taifa Kingdoms. The Caliphate of Cordoba reached its height in the 10th century, while Cordoba was the most prosperous city in Europe and one of the leading cultural centers of the Islamic world. However, inner conflicts and weak rulers who were unable to assert authority resulted in decentralization of power and a civil war between 1009 and 1013 which led to the collapse of the Caliphate of Cordoba.