Kingdom of Leon
The Kingdom of Leon was established with the division of the Kingdom of Asturias among the sons of Alfonso III in 910. The first King of Leon became Alfonso’s eldest son Garcia I (910-914). He was succeeded by his brother Ordono II who was also King of Galicia in 914. On his death in 924 Kingdoms of Leon and Galicia passed to the third brother Fruela II, King of Asturias who moved the capital from Oviedo to the city of Leon. Thus the Kingdom of Leon is practically a continuation of Kingdom of Asturias.
The period from Fruela’s death in 925 until the accession of Ramiro II (931-951) was marked by a dynastic crisis. Ramiro II brought stability to the kingdom and defeated the Muslims several times but he could not prevent the establishment of Kingdom of Castile under Count Fernan Gonzalez (923-970) nor the rise of Navarre and County of Barcelona. Ramiro’s death was followed by an inner crisis which was caused by the struggles over the throne and the attacks of the Muslims of Al-Andalus.
The Kingdom of Leon retained its importance in the Iberian Peninsula until it was conquered by Fernando I of Castile and united with Kingdom of Castile in 1037. Ferdinand ruled both kingdoms as Fernando I of Leon until his death in 1065 when Kingdom of Leon renewed its independence. In 1072, Leon was reunited with Castile under Alfonso VI of Castile but the kingdoms were split again around 1195. However, Castile and Leon were permanently united by Fernando III of Castile in 1230.