Kingdom of Portugal (12th – 13th c.)
The Kingdom of Portugal was established after the coronation of Alfonso I (1139-1185) as King of Portugal and declaration of independence from the Kingdom of Castile and Leon in 1139. Alfonso strengthened his authority and achieved his recognition by the Spanish Kingdoms as well as by the Pope. He was succeeded by his son Sancho I (1185-1211) who led a successful campaign against the Moors and captured Algarve. The reign of Sancho I was also characterized by a conflict over the land and power with the Church which also marked the reign of his successor Alfonso II (1211-1223).