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27 Jul

Medieval History Timeline from 1226 AD to 1492 AD

  • 1226 – Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II issued the Golden Bull of Rimini which granted the possessions in Prussia to the Teutonic Knights. The event is traditionally regarded as the establishment of the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights.
  • 1227 – Death of Gengis Khan.
  • 1241 – The Mongols under Batu Khan invaded Poland and Hungary after defeating the Poles in the Battle of Legnica on April 9, 1241, and Hungarians forces under King Bela IV in the Battle of Mohi two days later on April 11, 1241. Despite being victorious Batu Khan returned to the Mongolian Empire because of the death of the Great Khan.
  • 1243 – The Mongols established the Golden Horde – the western part of the Mongol Empire encompassing what is today Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Kazakhstan and the Caucasus region.
  • 1250 (December 13) – Death of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.
  • 1250 – The Seventh Crusade led by Louis IX of France to Egypt fails. Louis IX was captured and released after paying an enormous ransom.
  • 1261 (July 25) – Michael VIII Palaeolugus recovers Constantinople from the Latin Empire and restores the Byzantine Empire under Palaeologan Dynasty.
  • 1265 (August 4) – Prince Edward (later Edward I of England) defeats Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester in the Battle of Evesham.
  • 1270 (August 25) – Louis IX of France dies during the Eighth Crusade which ends as a failure.
  • 1273 (September 11) – Rudolf of Habsburg is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1278 ( March 7) – Death of Saint Thomas Aquinas.
  • 1282 (March 30) – A rebellion known as the Sicilian Vespers breaks out against the Angevin king Charles I on the island of Sicily.
  • 1284 (October 6) – Philip VI (the Fair) succeeded his father Philip III as King of France.
  • 1291 – Mamluks capture Acre, the last Crusader stronghold in the Holy Land.
  • 1307 (October 13) – Philip IV of France orders the arrest of the Knights Templar.
  • 1309 – Pope Clement V moves his residence from Rome to Avignon. The event marked the beginning of the so-called Avignon Papacy, sometimes referred as the Babylonian Captivity during which seven Popes resided in Avignon and were under French political influence.
  • 1314 (June 24) – Robert the Bruce decisively defeats the English forces led by Edward II of England at the Battle of Bannockburn and gains independence for Scotland.
  • 1321 (September 14) – Death of Dante Alighieri, an Italian poet best known for his Divine Comedy.
  • 1324 (January 8) – Marco Polo, the Venetian merchant known for his journey to China dies in Venice.
  • 1328 (February 1) – Death of Charles IV of France, the last male of the direct Capetian line.
  • 1337 – The beginning of the Hundred Years’ War between France and England which was fought with interruption until 1453 when it ended with French victory. England lost all its territory in France except for Calais.
  • 1346 (July 11) – Charles IV of the House of Luxembourg was elected Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1348-50 – The height of the Black Death, the deadliest pandemics in human history. One third to one half of the European population has been killed by the bubonic plague.
  • 1371 (February 22) – Robert Stuart succeeded his uncle David II, the last King of Scotland of the Clan Bruce.
  • 1374 (July 18) – Death of Petrarch, the “Father of Humanism”.
  • 1375 (December 21) – Death of Giovanni Boccaccio, author of the Decameron.
  • 1377 (January 17) – Pope Gregory XI returns to Rome and ends the Avignon Papacy.
  • 1384 (December 13) – Death of John Wycliffe, an English theologian and founder of Lollard movement – a precursor to the Protestan Reformation.
  • 1385 (August 14) – John I of Portugal decisively defeats John I of Castile at the Battle of Ajubarrota and wins independence for Portugal.
  • 1385 (March 4) – Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania was crowned King of Poland after converting to Christianity and marrying Jadwiga of Poland. The event is traditionally considered as the foundation of the Polish-Lithuanian Union.
  • 1389 (June 28) – Ottoman Sultan Murad I decisively defeats the Serbian forces led by Prince Lazar at the Battle of Kosovo. Prince Lazar and most of the Serbian nobility are killed in the battle.
  • 1396 (September 25) – Ottoman forces under Bayezid I decisively defeat the Christian allies under the leadership of Sigismund of Hungary and the future Holy Roman Emperor at the Battle of Nicopolis. Bulgaria becomes an Ottoman vassal state.
  • 1397 (June 20) – Denmark, Norway and Sweden join into the Kalmar Union under Queen Margaret I of Denmark.
  • 1399 (September 29) – Richard II of England, the last King of England of the House of Plantagenet is forced to abdicate. He is succeeded by Henry IV of the House of Lancaster.
  • 1409 (March 25 – August 7) – The Council of Pisa deposed Pope Gregory XII and Antipope Benedict XIII and elected a third Pope, Alexander V but failed to end the Western Schism which broke out after the death of Pope Gregory XI in 1378.
  • 1410 (July 15) – The Teutonic Knights are decisively defeated by Polish-Lithuanian forces at the Battle of Tannenberg (Grunwald). The Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights never recovered from the defeat .
  • 1415 (July 6) – The Council of Constance condemned Jan Hus of heresy and had him burned at the stake.
  • 1417 (November 11) – The Council of Constance ends the Western Schism by deposing all remaining Papal claimants and electing Pope Martin V.
  • 1418/1420 – Portuguese explorers Joao Goncalves Zarco and Tristao Vaz discover Madeira Islands and Porto Santo.
  • 1419 (July 30) – Czech Hussites throw the city councillors from the windows of Town Hall. The event provoked by the execution of Jan Hus known as the First Defenestration of Prague was the prelude to the Hussite Wars (1420-1436).
  • 1422 (October 21) – Death of French king Charles the Mad.
  • 1429 (May 8) – Jean of Arc saves Orleans.
  • 1431 (May 30) – Jean of Arc was burned at the stake by the English in Rouen.
  • 1433 (May 31) – Sigismund, King of Hungary, Germany, Bohemia and Lombardy is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Eugenius IV.
  • 1434 – Cosimo de’Medici also known as Cosimo the Elder assumes power in Florence.
  • 1441 (July 9) – Death of Jan van Eyck who is widely considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century.
  • 1444 (November 10) – The Ottomans under Sultan Murad II decisively defeat the crusade army led by Polish-Hungarian king Wladislaw III who was killed in the battle. The event set the stage for the Fall of Constantinople.
  • 1445 – Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press.
  • 1453 – The Hundred Years’ War ends without a formal peace treaty. England loses all territories in France except for Calais which is finally captured by the French in 1558.
  • 1453 (May 29) – The Ottomans under Sultan Mehmed II capture Constantinople. The Fall of Constantinople marked the end of the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1455 (May 22) – The Battle of Saint Albans marks the beginning of the Wars of the Roses. The English civil between the rival houses of Lancaster and York was fought until August 22, 1485 when Henry Tudor decisively defeated Richard III of England in the battle at Bosworth.
  • 1466 (October 19) – The Second Peace of Torun (Thorn) ends the Thirteen Years’ War (1454-1466) fought between the Prussian Confederation allied with the Kingdom with Poland and the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. The Teutonic Knights were forced to cede West Prussia and Pomerelia to Poland, while the remaining East Prussia became a Polish fief.
  • 1469 – The weeding of the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon laid the foundation for the unification of Spain.
  • 1476/77 – Death of Wallachian Prince Vlad III the Impaler (Dracula).
  • 1477 (January 5) – Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy is killed at the Battle of Nancy.
  • 1478 – The start of the Spanish Inquisition.
  • 1480 – Ivan III Vasilevich also known as Ivan the Great rejects the Tatar yoke and stops paying tribute to the Tatar khan.
  • 1481 (May 3) – Death of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror.
  • 1484 (December 5) – Pope Innocent VIII issues the papal bull Summis desiderantes affectibus which recognized the existence of witches and set the stage for the witch-hunts of the early modern period.
  • 1492 (April 8/9) – Death of the ruler of the Florentine Republic Lorenzo de’ Medici also referred as Lorenzo the Magnificent who is best known for his patronage art and literature.
  • 1492 (October 12) – Christopher Columbus lands in America.
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