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27 Jul

Medieval History Timeline from 814 AD to 1223 AD

  • 814 (January 28) – Death of Charlemagne, King of the Franks, King of the Lombards and Emperor of the Romans. He was succeeded by his son Louis the Pious.
  • 843 (August 10) – Three sons of Louis the Pious – Lothair I, Louis the German and Charles the Bold divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms with the Treaty of Verdun.
  • 862 – Varagian chieftain Rurik founded the Rurik Dynasty, the first ruling dynasty of the Kievan Rus.
  • 866 (May 26) – Byzantine Emperor Michael III was assassinated by Basil I the Macedonian who seized the Byzantine throne and founded the Macedonian Dynasty.
  • 870 (August 9) – Louis the German and Charles the Bold partitioned the kingdom of their deceased brother Lothair I and divided the Carolingian Empire into two parts with the Treaty of Meerssen.
  • 882 – Oleg of Novgorod captured Kiev and moved capital from Novgorod to Kiev. The event is traditionally regarded as the foundation of the Kievan Rus.
  • 899 (October 26/28) – Death of Alfred the Great, King of the Anglo-Saxons.
  • 907 (July 5/6) – The Magyars decisively defeated the Bavarian army led by Margrave Liutpold of Bavaria in the Battle of Pressburg/Battle of Bratislava. After the battle, the Magyars occupied the present-day Austria to the River Enns.
  • 910 – William I, Count of Auvergne founded the Cluny Abbey.
  • 911 (September 24) – Death of Louis the Child, the last Carolingian ruler of East Francia (the precursor of the Holy Roman Empire).
  • 911 – Charles the Simple granted Normandy as a fief to the Viking leader Rollo with the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte.
  • 918 – Simeon I of Bulgaria assumed the title Tsar (Emperor). During his reign (893-927) the First Bulgarian Empire reached its zenith.
  • 929 – Abd-ar-Rahman III proclaimed himself Caliph of Cordoba. The event is regarded as the foundation of the Caliphate of Cordoba.
  • 936 (August 7) – Otto I the Great succeeded his father Henry I the Fowler as king of the Germans.
  • 955 (June 10) – Otto I the Great decisively defeated the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld.
  • 959 (November 9) – Death of Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. He is also the author of De Administrando Imperio, De Ceremoniis and De Thematibus.
  • 962 (February 2) – Otto I the Great was crowned Emperor by Pope John XII. The event is traditionally viewed as the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • 966 – Mieszko I, the first crowned King of Poland converted to Christianity.
  • 982 – Eric the Red founded the first European settlement in Greenland.
  • 987 (May 21) – Death of Louis V, the last Carolingian King of Western Francia (the precursor of France).
  • 987 (July 3) – Hugh Capet, Duke of France was elected King of France. He founded the Capetian Dynasty which ruled France until 1328.
  • 1000 – Norse explorer Leif Ericson landed in America as the first European.
  • 1014 (July 29) – Byzantine Emperor Basil II the Bulgar-slayer decisively defeated the Bulgarian Emperor Samuil. By 1018, the First Bulgarian Empire was annexed by the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1015 (October 18) – Prince of Denmark, Canute the Great conquers England.
  • 1025 (December 15) – Death of Byzantine Emperor Basil II the Bulgar-slayer.
  • 1037 – Ferdinand I the Great defeated his brother-in-law Bermudo III , king of Leon and united Kingdom of Castile and Kingdom of Leon.
  • 1038 (August 15) – Death of St Stephen I, the first King of Hungary.
  • 1054 (July 16) – The East-West Schism sometimes referred as the Great Schisms resulted in the split of Christianity into Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church.
  • 1057 – Macbeth of Scotland is fatally wounded or killed by future Malcolm III in the Battle at Lumphanan.
  • 1066 (October 14) – William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy defeats the last Anglo-Saxon King of England Harold II in the Battle of Hastings.
  • 1072 – The Normans led by Roger I conquered Palermo, while Roger proclaims himself Count of Sicily.
  • 1085 – Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile proclaims himself Emperor of all Spain.
  • 1094 – El Cid captures Valencia.
  • 1095 (November 27) – Pope Urban II calls for the crusade against the Muslims to free the Holy Land.
  • 1096-99 – The First Crusade. The Crusaders captured Jerusalem on July 15, 1099.
  • 1101 (October 6) – Death of Saint Bruno of Cologne, the founder of the Carthusian Order.
  • 1119 – Foundation of the Knights Templar.
  • 1122 (September 23) – Concordat of Worms resolves the Investiture Controversy between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy.
  • 1137 (August 1) – Louis VII was crowned King of France. He marries Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine in the same year.
  • 1139 (July 25) – Alfonso I proclaims himself King of Portugal.
  • 1147-49 – The Second Crusade. The Crusaders led by Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France failed to capture Damascus.
  • 1154 (December 19) – Henry II, Count of Anjou and husband of Eleanor of Aquitaine was crowned King of England. He was the first King of England of the House of Plantagenet which ruled England 1399.
  • 1185 – Bulgarian rebellion under leadership of brothers Peter and Asen against the Byzantine Empire resulted in the establishment of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
  • 1187 (October 6) – Sultan Saladin captures Jerusalem.
  • 1189-92 – The Third Crusade or the King’s Crusade. The Crusaders led by Henry II of England and his son Richard the Lionheart, Philip II of France and Frederick I Barbarossa captured Acre but failed to capture Jerusalem. The King’s Crusade ended with a peace treaty signed between Sultan Saladin and Richard the Lionheart that allowed the Christians pilgrimage to Jerusalem which remained under Muslim control. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River as his forces were approaching Antioch on June 10, 1190.
  • 1198 (January 8) – Election of Pope Innocent III. During his pontificate the medieval Papacy reached its height.
  • 1199 (April 6) – Richard Lionheart dies while besieging the castle of Chalus-Chabrol.
  • 1204 (April 13) – The Crusaders capture Constantinople. The Fourth Crusade ended without even reaching the Holy Land. Byzantine Empire was partitioned into the Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea and Despotate of Epirus.
  • 1209-29 – The Albigesian Crusade or Cathar Crusade. Military campaign launched by Catholic Church against the Cathars in Languedoc ended with French royal intervention and suppression of the heretic movement.
  • 1212 (June 16) – Joined forces of Christian Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula – Castile, Aragon, Navarre and Portugal severely defeated the Berber Muslims in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The event was the turning point in the reconquest of the Iberian peninsula by the Christian Kingdoms.
  • 1212 – The Children’s Crusade. Thousands of children departed to the Holy Land but the vast majority were sold into slavery and never made it neither to the Holy Land nor back home.
  • 1214 (July 27) – Philip Augustus of France decisively defeated John of England and Otto IV of Germany in the Battle of Bouvines. After the battle, Otto IV was deposed and replaced by Frederick II Hohenstaufen.
  • 1215 (July 15/18) – John of England was forced to issue Magna Carta (the Great Charter) which limited the power of English kings.
  • 1216 (July 16) – Death of Pope Innocent III.
  • 1217 – Stefan II was crowned King of Serbia and assumed the title “Prvovencani” (the First-Crowned). Serbia became a kingdom ruled by the Nemanjic Dynasty.
  • 1217-21 – The Fifth Crusade. Sultan Al-Kamil agreed to surrender Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth to the Crusaders led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in return for Damietta.
  • 1221 (August 6) – Death of Saint Dominic, founder of the Order of Friars Preachers – the Dominicans.
  • 1223 (May 31) – The Mongols decisively defeated forces of the Kievan Rus in the Battle of the Kalka River. Following the battle, the Mongol forces withdrew to participate Gengis Khan’s campaign in China but they returned and captured Kiev on December 12, 1240. Conquest of Kiev was followed by full-scale Mongol Invasion and collapse of the Kievan Rus which was incorporated into the Golden Horde.
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