Throughout the Middle Ages, wars were a regular occurrence. Whether it was the Byzantine Empire fighting the Persians (as in the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars), the Carolingians fighting each other (as in the Carolingian Civil War), the English fighting each other (as in the Barons’ Wars and the Wars of the Roses), or any number of other groups fighting each other, there was always someone at war with someone else. Often, groups would engage in a series of wars spanning decades or even centuries.
Many of these wars shaped Western history in key ways. The Reconquista recaptured the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors, leading to the creation of modern Spain and Portugal. The Saxon Wars led to the Christianization of large portions of Europe. The Carolingian Civil War resulted in the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire into the successor states which have evolved into modern-day France and Germany. The First Barons’ War contributed to the development of the Magna Carta. These conflicts, among others, shaped Western (and Near-Eastern) civilization for centuries, and are essential to understanding this period in history.