Byzantine-Arab Wars (629 – 1054)
The Byzantine-Arab Wars were a series of conflicts between the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Caliphates fought in Palestine, Syria, Egypt, North Africa, Asia Minor, Crete and Sicily from 629 to 1054. The Byzantine-Arab Wars often considered as a part of the Muslim Conquests (624-1526) took place in several phases and with exception of Asia Minor resulted in overall Arab victory.
In the 10th and early 11th centuries the three Byzantine Emperors – Nikephorus II Phokas, John Tzimiskes and Basil II managed to recapture a great part of the territory that was lost in the 7th and early 8th centuries but only temporarily. Basil’s successors were unable to follow his politics, while the expedition of Michael IV the Paphlagonian to recapture Sicily from the Arabs in 1038 failed. In addition, the strife between Constantinople and Rome which resulted in the Great Schism in 1054 was taken advantage by the Normans who advanced in the Byzantine Italy.