Second Barons’ War (1264 – 1267)
The Second Barons’ War was fought between the royalist forces of Henry III and rebellious barons led by Simon de Montfort from 1264 to 1267. Strong baronial opposition and the need for additional financial sources forced Henry III to accept a radical reform program, the Provisions of Oxford in 1258 which greatly limited the monarchical authority and transferred the power to the committee of 24 nobles.
Henry III renounced the Provisions of Oxford in 1264 which provoked the outbreak the Seconds Barons’ War. The barons led by Simon de Montfort defeated the royalist forces in the Battle of Lewes in 1264, while Henry III and his heir to the throne Edward Longshanks were captured and imprisoned. Simon de Montfort became de facto ruler of England and summoned the first directly-elected parliament in Medieval Europe in 1265. Meanwhile Prince Edward managed to escape from captivity and summoned an army which defeated and killed de Montfort in the Battle of Evesham in August 1265. De Monfort’s supporters continued the fight against the royalist forces until 1267 when the barons were finally defeated.