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Byzantine Empire (9th – 13th c.)

27 Jul
July 27, 2012

History of the Byzantine Empire in the first half of the 9th century was marked by an inner crisis. Empress Irene was overthrown in 802 and replaced by the minister of finance Nikephoros I Logothetes (802-811) who was primarily concentrated on financial and military reorganization. The Byzantine Empire was at the time threatened by the rising power of the Bulgarians and the initial Byzantine success against the Bulgarian Khan Krum was followed by a disastrous defeat in the Battle of Pliska in 811. Nikephoros was killed in the battle and was succeeded by his son Staurakios who was overthrown in 812.

Staurakios was succeeded by his brother-in-law Michael I Rangabe (811-813) who recognized Charlemagne as basileus (emperor) probably due to the Bulgarian threat. Michael I Rangabe decided to deal with the Bulgarians but his army was severely defeated at Versinikia near Adrianople in 813. Michael I was deposed and replaced by Armenian general Leo V (813-820). Like his predecessor, Leo V had to deal with the Bulgarian threat but he reached a peace agreement with Krum’s successor Omurtag in 814. Leo V afterwards concentrated on inner politics and renewed Iconoclasm in 815 but he had less support than his iconoclastic predecessors in the 8th century. He was assassinated and replaced by Michael II the Amorian (820-829) in 820.

The reign of Michael II the Amorian was marked by the rebellion of Thomas the Slav in Asia Minor in 821 which resulted in the outbreak of a civil war. Michael II the Amorian managed to repulse Thomas’ siege of Constantinople but the civil war that lasted until 823 greatly weakened the Byzantine Empire which could not prevent the Arab conquest of Crete. The Arab threat continued during the reign of Michael’s son and successor Theophilos (829-842) whose reign was characterized by restitution of Iconoclasm. The movement against the worship of images finally ended after his death in 842.

Theophilos was succeeded by his son Michael III (842-867). His mother Empress Theodora acted as his regent during his minority but the government was eventually assumed by the secretary of state (logothete) Theoktistos Vriennion. Michael III overthrew the regency in 856 but his reign was strongly influenced by his uncle Bardas. The latter played a major role in the rebirth of Byzantine culture and political power, and supported the missions of Saint Cyril and Methodius to the Slavs. Bardas was assassinated by Michael’s favorite Basil of Macedonia in 866. Michael III made Basil a co-emperor but the latter ordered Michael’s assassination in 867, assumed the Byzantine throne as Basil I (867-886) and founded the Macedonian dynasty.

Illumination of Emperor Basil I and his son the future Leo VI

Basil I and his son Leo VI

The Byzantine Empire consolidated its power during the Basil’s reign. He launched several military campaigns which resulted in the recapture of Southern Italy and strengthened the Byzantine eastern frontier. Basil I died on a hunting accident in 886 and was succeeded by his son Leo VI the Wise (886-912). He completed and issued the Basiica, a Greek translation and update of the law code of Justinian I which centralized the government and strengthened the imperial authority in the first year of his reign. Leo VI was not as successful as his father in foreign politics. He provoked a war with Simeon I of Bulgaria which resulted in the Byzantine defeat in the Battle of Bulgarophygon in 896, while his war against Bulgaria enabled the Arabs to invade the Byzantine territory and to capture Sicily in 902 and Thessaloniki in 907. Constantinople was attacked by the Kievan Rus but Leo VI managed to repulse the Kievan threat through negotiations and favorable political-commercial treaty.

The Byzantine Empire fell into an inner crisis which caused by the conflicts over the throne after Leo’s death in 912. The Byzantine throne was assumed by Leo’s brother Alexander (912-913) who renewed the conflict with Simeon I of Bulgaria by refusing to pay tribute. He died only after one year after accession to the Byzantine throne and was succeeded by a minor son of Leo VI, Constantine VII (913-920 and 945-959) and Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos as his regent. Advance of the Bulgarian forces forced the Patriarch to recognize Simeon I as Bulgarian Emperor and to accept marriage between Constantine VII and one of Simeon’s daughters. However, Nicholas was driven out of regency and Empress Zoe revoked all Nicholas’ concessions to Simeon I. The latter invaded Thrace and marched towards Corinth in 918. At the same time came to power admiral Romanos Lekapenos who arranged the marriage between Constantine VII and his daughter Helena in 919. He bacame basileopator (emperor-father) but crowned himself co-emperor one year later. The Bulgarians failed to capture Constantinople in 920, while the Bulgarian threat finally ceased after Simeon’s death in 927. The Byzantines afterwards concentrated on campaigns against the Arabs and extended the Byzantine borders far to the east.

Romanos’ sons Stephen and Constantine who feared that he will be succeeded by Constantine VII overthrew their father in 944. However, Constantine VII removed his brothers-in-law in 945 and reigned as sole emperor until his death in 959. He was succeeded by his son Romanos II (959-963) whose short reign is notable for his successful military campaigns. General Nikephoros Phokas captured Crete in 961, decisively defeated the Arabs at Saif ed-Daula and conquered Aleppo one year later. Romanos II died suddenly in 963 and the imperial title was won by general Nikephoros Phokas through marriage with Romanos’ widow Theophanu. However, Theophanu conspired against him and Nikephoros was assassinated by John Tzimiskes who assumed the Byzantine throne as John I (969-976).

John I settled the conflicts with Holy Roman Emperor Otto I over the possessions in Southern Italy and married his niece Theophanu with Otto I’s son Otto II in 972. John’s sudden death in 976 was followed by a civil war over his succession which was won by the eldest son of Romanos II, Basil II (979-1025) in 979. The Byzantine Empire under Basil II reached its height. Basil II decisively defeated the Bulgarians and annexed their territory in 1018. He was also successful in Southern Italy and Armenia but his reign is probably best known for increased Byzantine cultural influence in Kievan Rus, the Balkans and Capadocia.

Painting of Basil II

Basil II (the Bulgar-slayer)

The Byzantine Empire began to decline after Basil’s death in 1025. His successors Constantine VIII (1025-1028), Romanos III (1028-1034) and Michael IV (1034-1042) failed to limit the rising power of aristocracy and to prevent decentralization and weakening of state finances. Constantine IX (1042-1055) who tried to secure his position by favoring the nobility was faced with the Pecheneg invasion on the north and increased Norman pressure in Southern Italy, while the Seljuks Turks invaded Syria after the conquest of Baghdad in 1055. In addition, the differences between the Greek and Roman Churches resulted in the Great Schism and their final separation in 1054. The Macedonian dynasty became extinct after the death of Empress Theodora (1055-1056) and was followed by severe conflicts over the Byzantine throne.

Michael IV (1056-1057) who was chosen by Empress Theodora as her successor was forced to step down by Isaac I Komnenos (1057-1059). However, Isaac I soon came into conflict with the court bureaucracy as well as with the clergy and was forced to abdicate in 1059. He was succeeded by Constantine X Doukas (1059-1067) whose reign was characterized by further decline of the Byzantine Empire which suffered severe territorial losses under his son and successor Michael IV Doukas (1071-1078). The Normans under Robert Guiscard advanced in Sicily and Southern Italy, the Hungarians captured Belgrade in 1064, the Pechenegs penetrated into Greece, while Minor Asia was permanently lost after severe defeat of the Byzantine forces by the Seljuk Turks in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. Foreign difficulties caused dissatisfaction with Michael’s reign and he was forced to abdicate in 1078. The Byzantine throne was assumed by Nikephoros III (1078-1081) but he was deposed in 1081.

A portrait of Manuel I Comnenus

Manuel I Comnenus

Nikephoros III was succeeded by Alexios I Comnenus (Komnenos) (1081-1118) who founded the Komnenid Dynasty. The reign of Alexios I was marked by the First Crusade which was launched on his appeal to Pope Urban II. He managed to recover some of territory in Asia Minor, defeated Bohemund I of Antioch in the Battle of Dyrrhachium in 1107 and repulsed the Norman threat. However, he was faced with a serious rival in the Balkan Peninsula after the establishment of personal union between Hungary and Croatia. His successor John II Comnenus (1118-1143) managed to withstand all the attacks on the Byzantine Empire, defeated the Pechenegs who invaded Thrace and repulsed the Hungarians. He conquered the Principality of Antioch in 1137, transformed it into a vassal state and concluded a defensive alliance with the Holy Roman Empire against the Normans. However, his successor Manuel I Comnenus (1143-1180) was not able to pursue his father’s policy. Manuel I came into conflict with the Pope and Louis VII of France after the Second Crusade (1147-1149) and failed to reach an agreement with Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I Barbarossa against Roger II of Sicily. He invaded Southern Italy in 1155 but he was forced to withdraw and cede Southern Italy to William I of Sicily after defeat at Brindisi in 1156. Manuel I achieved success in the Balkans by capturing Dalmatia, Croatia and Bosnia in 1167 and by extending his influence over Hungary and Serbia. However, his successful politics in the Balkans brought him into conflict with Venice which concluded an anti-Byzantine alliance with the Normans. Manuel I allied himself with Genoa (1169) and Pisa (1170) but Venice established itself as a leading sea power in the Mediterranean. He launched a military campaign against the Seljuk Turks in 1176 but the Byzantine forces were severely defeated at Myriocephalon.

Manuel I died in 1180 and was succeeded by Alexios II Comnenus (1180-1183) with his mother Maria of Antioch as his regent. However, Alexios II was forced to recognize Andronikos Comenus (1183-1185) as emperor shortly after his accession to the Byzantine throne. Andronikos’ brutal suppression of his opponents resulted in several revolts and the chaotic situation in the Byzantine Empire was taken advantage by William II of Sicily who invaded the Byzantine territory. Andrikos was deposed by Isaac II Angelos (1185-1195 and 1203-1204) during his absence from Constantinople. The new Byzantine Emperor repulsed the invaders but he was not able to prevent the further disintegration and decline of the Byzantine Empire which also marked the reign of his successor Alexios III Angelos (1195-1203). The Byzantine Empire under Alexios III Angelos lost its political influence in the Balkan Peninsula and Cyprus, while the Fourth Crusade resulted in the partition of the Byzantine Empire in 1204.

Carolingian Empire

27 Jul
July 27, 2012

The Frankish Empire under realm of the Carolingian Dynasty commonly referred as the Carolingian Empire reached its height during the reign of Charlemagne (768-814) who incorporated much of Western and Central Europe into the Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne started his military campaigns with the war against the Lombards who recaptured the Lombard cities which were granted to the Papacy by the Donation of Pepin. The request of Pope Hadrian I to provide military assistance against the Lombards was the immediate cause for Charlemagne’s campaign in Italy but the Frankish King was also disturbed by support of the Lombard king Desiderius to Charlemagne’s sister-in-law in her attempt to regain her children’s right to inheritance. The Frankish forces invaded Italy by crossing the Alps in 773, defeated the Lombards and conquered their capital Pavia in 774. Desiderius was deposed and banished to a monastery. Charlemagne proclaimed himself King of the Lombards, while the entire territory of the Lombard Kingdom except for Spoleto and Benevento was incorporated into Carolingian Empire.

Carolingian Empire

Carolingian Empire

Charlemagne started a war against the Saxons in 772, one year earlier than launching his campaign against the Lombards. However, the so-called Saxon Wars which resulted in expansion of the Frankish border almost to the Rhine River lasted for three decades. Meanwhile Charlemagne also led several military campaigns against the Moors in Spain (778-811) and established the Spanish March between the Pyrenees and the Ebro River. Charlemagne subdued Benevento in Southern Italy in 787, Bavaria in 788, destroyed the Avar state between 791 and 803 and led a series of campaigns against the Slavs. He created an empire extending from the Atlantic Ocean on the west, to Danube on the east and from Rhine on the north to Mediterranean Sea on the south before he was crowned emperor on Christmas day in year 800.

Charlemagne was succeeded by Louis the Pious (814-840). The latter divided the Carolingian Empire among his three sons Lothair, Louis the German and Pepin in 817 when the largest partition went to Lothair. The division caused jealousy among the brothers, while redivision after the birth of Charles the Bald from Louis’ second marriage further strained the relationships between his sons. On Louis’ death in 840 broke out a war between the three brothers (Pepin died earlier) Lothair, Louis the German and Charles the Bald which ended with the Treaty of Verdun in 843 and the division of the Carolingian Empire into:

  • the Middle Francia or the central part of the empire (Low Countries, Lorraine, Alsace, Burgundy, Provence and Italy) was granted to Lothair I
  • the East Francia (today’s Germany) went to to Louis the German
  • the West Francia (today’s France) was gained by Charles the Bald

The Carolingian Empire continued to decline despite the agreement between the Louis’ successors. Charles the Bald had difficulties with constant uprisings in Aquitaine and with the invasions of the Vikings, Middle Francia lacked ethnic and linguistic unity, while East Francia which was economically the weakest part of the former Carolingian Empire was threatened by the Vikings and the Slavs from Moravia.

The Carolingian Empire was severely weakened by the principle of territorial division among the heirs which continued in all three kingdoms. All three sons of Lothair I died without a legitimate male heirs. Thus Italy and the territory between the Alps and North Sea known as Lotharingia were divided between their uncles Charles the Bald and Louis the German. The Carolingian Empire was once again united during the reign of Charles the Fat. He assured himself the imperial title and was elected King of all Franks on the death of Carloman II, the last adult Carolingian of the western branch in 884.

Arnulf of Carinthia

Arnulf of Carinthia

The unification of the Carolingian Empire lasted only until 887 when Charles the Fat was deposed. The illegitimate son of his brother Carloman, Arnulf of Carinthia was elected King of the East Franks, while non-Carolingian kings were elected in West Francia, Upper and Lower Burgundy, and Italy. Arnulf managed to retain a kind of supreme authority over kings of West Francia and Burgundy, gained Italy and the imperial title but his success was short lasting. Arnulf’s heir Louis the Child (900-911) was minor on his death and lost even the formal supremacy over West Francia where was elected Charles the Simple. The eastern frontiers were at the time severely endangered by the Hungarians who invaded and plundered Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Lotharingia, Bavaria and Italy. Failure of the kings of the East Franks against the invaders in 9th and 10th centuries resulted in division of East Francia into stem duchies: Swabia, Bavaria, Saxony and Franconia.

Louis the Child died in 911 without a male heir. The Saxons and Franconians elected Duke of Franconia, Conrad I who was later also accepted by the Bavarians and Swabians. Election of Conrad I (911-918) finally ended the Carolingian rule in East Francia which is referred as the Medieval German state from the coronation of Henry I the Fowler in 919 onwards. The West Francia was ruled by the Carolingian Dynasty intermittently until 987 when Hugh Capet established the Capetian dynasty, while the kingdom came to be known as France.

Byzantine Empire (5th – 9th c.)

27 Jul
July 27, 2012

The establishment of the Byzantine Empire is commonly dated to year 324 when Roman Emperor, Constantine the Great (306-337) moved the imperial capital to Byzantium which came to be known as Constantinople. The Western and Eastern (Byzantine) parts of the Roman Empire were finally divided on the death of Emperor Theodosius I in 395.

Emperor Justinian I

Emperor Justinian I

In contrary to the Western Roman Empire which was destroyed by the barbarian invasions, the Byzantine Empire managed to repulse the invasions of the Visigoths, Huns, Avars, Slavs, Bulgarians and the Persians which marked the reigns of Arcadius (395-408), Theodosius II (408-450), Marcian (450-457), Leo I (457-474), Leo II (474), Zeno (474-745 and 476-491), Anastasius I (491-518) and Justin I (518-527). Justin’s successor Justinian I (527-565) restored the former power of the Byzantine Empire. Ambitions of Justinian I to restore the territory of the former Roman Empire resulted in successful military campaign against the Vandals in Northern Africa in 533-534, recapture of Italy from the Ostrogoths in so-called Gothic War (535-540 and 542-552) and of southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula from the Visigoths in 552.

Justinian I was triumphal in Western Europe but the Byzantine Empire was greatly weakened by the attacks of the Persians on the east and threatened by the invasions of the Slavs, Bulgarians, Huns and Avars on the north at the beginning of the 6th century. Thus the reigns of Justinian’s successors Justin II (565-574) and Tiberius II Constantine (574-582) were marked by the Persian-Byzantine Wars and Slavic invasions in the north, while much of Italy has been captured by the Lombards. Maurice (582-602) transformed the shattered Byzantine Empire into a well-organized medieval state. He restored the Byzantine authority in Western Europe and North Africa by reorganizing the Byzantine dominions into exarchates ruled by the military governors or exarchs.

Maurice was killed in an army rebellion in 602 and the Byzantine throne was assumed by Phocas (602-610) who served as an officer during Maurice’s Balkan campaigns. The Byzantine Empire reached its lowest point during Phocas’ reign and was greatly weakened by the invasions of the Slavs on the north and of the Persians on the east. The Byzantine throne was in very serious situation assumed by Heraclius (610-641) who deposed Phocas and had him killed. Heraclius decisively defeated the Persians in 629 but he neglected the northern frontiers. Slavic peoples settled in the Balkan by year 615, while Heraclius barely managed to defend Constantinople from the Avars. Heraclius’ reign was also marked by increased Hellenization of Byzantine social, political and cultural life as well as by military reorganization of provinces into Themes.

Heraclius was succeeded by his son Constantine III (641) who died only after four months and was succeeded by his younger half-brother Heraclonas (614). However, rumors that he murdered Constantine III resulted in revolt and his deposition. The new Byzantine Emperor became the son of Constantine III, Constans II (641-668) under the regency of the senators. His early reign was characterized by the invasions of the Arabs who captured Egypt, extended their influence in North Africa and seized the islands of Cyprus, Rhodes, Kos and Crete. The Arabs defeated the Byzantine fleet in the naval Battle at Phoinike (off Lycia) in 655 but they were unable to take advantage of the victory because of the inner conflicts. When the Arab threat on the east ceased Constans II launched a campaign against the Slavs in Macedonia and forced them to recognize the Byzantine rule. Afterwards Constans II concentrated on Italy but the Papacy felt strong enough and refused Monothelitism as a compromise between the Eastern and Western Churches. Meanwhile Constans II became very unpopular and he was assassinated in Syracuse in 668.

Constantine IV and his retinue

Constantine IV and his retinue

The army in Sicily proclaimed Mezezius (668-669) the new Byzantine Emperor but the Exarch of Ravenna assassinated the usurper. The Byzantine throne was assumed by Constans’ son Constantine IV (668-685). The reign of Constantine IV was marked by increased Arab pressure and annual Arab attacks on Constantinople but the Byzantines managed to withstand the Arab attacks. The Arabs withdrew and agreed to pay tribute to the Byzantine Empire after decisive defeat in the Battle of Syllaeum in Pamphylia in 678 when the Byzantines used the Greek fire for the first time. Constantine IV launched a military campaign against the Bulgarians immediately after the Battle of Syllaeum but he failed to stop the Bulgarian expansion. Constantine IV was succeeded by his son Justinian II (685-695 and 705-711) who continued military campaigns in the Balkans and renewed the war against the Arabs. His administrative reforms were opposed by the aristocracy and resulted in his deposition in 695. The Byzantine throne was assumed by Leontios (695-698) who was deposed and imprisoned after three years of reign by Tiberios III (698-705). The latter acted as the Byzantine Emperor until 705 when Justinian II returned and restored his power. Justinian’s second reign was characterized by brutal suppression of his opponents which provoked an uprising. Justinian II was captured and executed together with his son from his second marriage with Theodora of Khazaria in 711. Thus the rule of the Heraclian dynasty founded by Emperor Heraclius (610-641) came to an end.

The period following the execution of Justinian II in 711 and the accession of Leo III in 717 was marked by a civil war and rapid switches on the Byzantine throne. The period of instability as well as of the Arab threat ended with the accession of Leo III the Isaurian (711-741) whose reign was also notable for a series of edicts against the worship of images (726-729). Leo’s prohibition of veneration of the icons provoked a long struggle over iconoclasm which reached its height under his son and successor Constantine V (741-775). However, many of his rigid decrees against the use of images in worship were abolished by his son and successor Leo IV (775-780), while his wife Irene that acted as regent to Leo’s 10-year-old son and successor Constantine VI (780-797) restored the veneration of icons. Irene summoned the Council of Nicaea in 787 which formally revived the adoration of images. The circles that strongly opposed to the adoration of images supported Constantine VI who wanted to rule as sole emperor. Irene was banished in 790 but she was recalled two years later and granted the title of empress. Shortly after her return Irene organized a conspiracy, overthrown her son and ruled as sole empress from 797 to 802. Irene’s revival of adoration of images improved the relations with the Papacy but the Byzantine influence in Western Europe began to decline.

Avar Khaganate (Empire)

27 Jul
July 27, 2012

The Avars were nomadic people from Eurasia who invaded Eastern Europe in the 6th century and settled in the Danube River area in the second half of the 6th century. In alliance with the Lombards they destroyed the Kingdom of the Gepids in 567 and forced the Lombards to move to northern Italy one year later.

Avar Khaganate

Avar Khaganate

The Avars settled in the Pannonian plain and established the Avar Khaganate after the Lombard withdrawal to Italy. The Avar Khaganate also incorporated various Slavic peoples who had an inferior status within the khaganate. However, Avar raids in the Balkans and eastern Alps enabled the Slavic population to settle the region, especially after the fall of Sirmium in 582. Unsuccessful attacks of combined Avar-Slavic forces on Constantinople and Thessaloniki in 617 followed by a failed siege of Constantinople in 626 has severely weakened the Avar domination over the Slavic peoples. The Avars retreated to the Pannonian plain and left most of the Balkans in the hands of the Slavs. The inner conflicts and exterior pressure further weakened the Avar state which was finally destroyed by Charlemagne between 791 and 803.

Frankish Kingdom (5th – 9th c.)

27 Jul
July 27, 2012
Clovis I

Clovis I

The Frankish Kingdom was the strongest and the most powerful of all medieval Germanic kingdoms established on ruins of the Western Roman Empire. The Frankish Kingdom started to rise during the reign of Clovis I (482-511) who conquered the neighboring Frankish tribes, defeated Visigoths with center in Toulouse and Alamanni in 496, and established himself as sole king of all Franks. Clovis’ conversion into Catholicism in 498 by which he gained the support of the Roman population and of the Catholic Church played an important role in the future development of the Frankish Kingdom as well. The territorial expansion in the 5th and first half of the 6th centuries under the Merovingian Dynasty was followed by an inner crisis that was caused by the division of the kingdom into Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy. Clotaire II (613-629) reunited the Frankish Kingdom and was proclaimed the King of all the Franks but further divisions took place after the death of Dagobert I in 639 and resulted in decline of Merovingian power and rise of the mayors of the palace.

Pepin of Herstal, the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia defeated allied forces of Theuderic III, King of the Franks and Berthar, the Mayor of the Palace of Neustria and Burgundy in the Battle of Tertry in 687 becoming de facto ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Pepin also subdued the Alemanni, Frisians, Bavarians and Bretons, and captured Aquitaine, while Thuringia managed to renew its independence for a short period. On Pepin’s death his illegitimate son Charles Martel (714-741) seized power in Austrasia. Charles Martel is best known for defeating the Muslim invaders in the Battle of Tours in 732 and stopping the Muslim advance in Western Europe. On the death of Charles Martel his two sons Carloman and Pepin the Short became the Mayors of the Palaces of Neustria and of Austrasia. However, Carloman went into monastery Monte Cassino in 747 leaving Pepin the Short as the sole mayor of the palace.

Pepin the Short deposed the last Merovingian king Childeric III and confined him to a monastery with support of Pope Zachary in 751. Afterwards he had himself elected as King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish leading-men and was anointed at Soissons. Pepin’s coronation finally ended the Merovingian rule in the Frankish Kingdom and established the Carolingian Dynasty as the new ruling dynasty. The reign of Pepin the Short was also notable for the incorporation of Aquitaine into the Frankish Kingdom, installation of Tassilo III in Bavaria as duke under Frankish overlordship and Frankish victory over the Lombards. Like the Merovingian kings, Pepin the Short divided the Frankish Kingdom among his sons on his death: Carloman and Charlemagne (768-814) but Charlemagne became sole ruler of the Franks after Carloman’s sudden death in 771.

Lombard Kingdom

27 Jul
July 27, 2012

Italy was invaded by the Lombards under leadership of their king Alboin less than two decades after the war between the Byzantine Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom known as the Gothic Wars (535-554). The Lombards initially settled in Pannonia and helped the Avars destroy the Kingdom of Gepids in 567 but feeling threatened by their former allies Avars they invaded northern Italy one year later.

Lombard Kingdom under Alboin

Lombard Kingdom under Alboin

The Lombards conquered Pavia after a three year siege in 572 and made it capital of their kingdom. From the northern Italy they penetrated deep into central and southern Italy where they established two independent duchies: the Duchy of Spoleto and the Duchy of Benevento. The Adriatic coast from Istria to Numana, the territory from Ravenna to eastern Emilia known as the Exarchate as well as the territory from Rimini to Ancona known as the Pentapolis, the duchy of Rome, the duchy of Naples, Apulia, Calabria, and the islands and coast of Luguria and Tuscia remained in Byzantine hands. The Lombards did not succeed to conquer whole Italian peninsula which was divided on two parts: the Lombard Kingdom and Romagnia. In addition, the Lombard Kingdom itself was divided on several duchies with wide autonomy which weakened the kingdom’s unity and the central power.

Alboin who was murdered in 572 was succeeded by Cleph who was murdered as well only after 18 months of rule. Cleph’s death was followed by a decade of anarchy, plundering and persecution of the Roman population until the accession of Authari (584-590) who defeated the Frankish forces of Childebert II and strengthened the monarchy. He was succeeded by Agilulf (590-616) whose reign was marked by a pro-Byzantine politics and beginning of the Lombard conversion into Catholicism. The conversion into Catholicism was greatly encouraged by queen Theodelinda who was personally very devoted to the Pope Gregory the Great.

Integration of the Roman population and the Lombards began after the death of Rothari (636-652) who was the last Lombard King loyal to Arianism and to the Germanic tradition. The Lombard Kingdom reached its height under the reign of Liutprand (712-744) who took advantage of weakened Byzantine authority in Italy and conquered the Exarchate and Pentapolis and invaded the northern Latium in 728. Liutprand’s conquests disturbed Pope Gregory II, and the Dukes of Spoleto and Benevento. Both dukes decided to submit to Liutprand who also reached a peaceful agreement with Papacy with the so-called Donation of Sutri. Latter granted the city and some hill towns in Latium to the Papacy as a gift to the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul. The conflicts were renewed during the pontificate of Pope Gregory III who concluded an alliance with dukes of Spoleto and Benevento, while Liutprand continued territorial expansion on expense of the duchy of Rome and directly threatened the Papacy. Gregory III turned for help to Charles Martel who needed the Lombard aid for his campaign against the Muslims. For that reason Martel promised the Pope only general support and forced Gregory’s successor Zachary to meet with Liutprand. He returned the conquered territories to the Holy See in 742.

Liutprand’s successor Ratchis (744-749) yielded to the Papacy but his successor Aistulf (749-756) was determined to conquer whole Italy and attacked Exarchate, captured Comacchio, Ferrara, Ravenna and the Duchy of Spoleto. Aat the same time Pope Zachary gave his support to Pepin the Short at his accession to the Frankish throne. Pepin who was grateful for papal support promised Pope Stephen II military assistance against the Lombards and return of all lost territories (Promissio Carisiaca). He kept his promise, invaded Italy and defeated Aistulf and gave the former Byzantine territories to the Papal States with the so-called Donation of Pepin.

Aistulf’s successor Desiderius (756-774) initially led a friendly politics towards Papal States and Frankish Kingdom but eventually he renewed the politics of his predecessor and turned against Rome. Pope Handrian I appealed to Pepin’s son Charlemagne who decisively defeated the Lombards and proclaimed himself the King of Franks and Lombards in 774.

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