Carantania situated in today’s Carinthia was established in the 7th century. Carantania was a part of the King Samo’s Empire as Marca Vinedorum until 658. It retained its independence after the collapse of the King Samo’s Empire until the middle of the 8th century. Carantanians felt threatened by the Avars who captured much of the former King Samo’s Empire and turned for help to Bavarians. Allied Carantanian and Bavarian forces defeated the Avars in 743 but Carantania was forced to recognize the Bavarian rule in return for their military assistance against the Avars. However, Bavaria was incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom about the same time and thus Carantania came under the Frankish rule.
Tag Archive for: Slavic states
(King) Samo’s Empire or Samo’s Realm was the first know Slavic state established by a Frankish merchant named Samo in present-day Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia, Lower Austria and Carinthia in 626. King Samo’s Empire evolved into a powerful kingdom which successfully withstood the attacks of the Avars on the east as well as the Franks on the west. However, the state collapsed after Samo’s death in 658 and most of its territory was captured by the Avars. The Slavs in today’s Carinthia retained their independence and established a principality known as Carantania.
The Bulgarians (Turkic origin, later slavicized) moved from their homeland in Central Asia and settled at the mouth of the Danube in today’s southern Russia and Bessarabia in the middle of the 7th century. The Bulgarian invasions in the Byzantine territory did not represent any greater threat until they crossed the Danube and permanently settled between the Danube River and the Balkan mountains. The Byzantine Empire was at the time helpless against the Bulgarians who managed to subjugate the Slavic population.
The Bulgarians were slavicized and assimilated with the Slavic population over the next two centuries but they kept their name. They also remained the ruling class and established the First Bulgarian Empire in 682 which was also recognized by the Byzantine Empire. The First Bulgarian Empire developed into a important power in the Balkans during the reign of Khan Asparuh and his successors, especially during the rule of Khan Krum (802-814) and his son Omurtag (814-831). They expanded the frontiers of the Bulgarian Empire to the territory of former Avar state east of the Tisza river and captured Sofia from the Byzantine Empire.
Medieval Europe saw further changes on the political map of Europe from the 9th to the 13th century. The period was marked by the rise of states which evolved into the leading European powers: England, France, Germany, the Christian Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula and Scandinavian Kingdoms. Slavic states emerged in Eastern and Southeastern Europe and developed into powerful medieval kingdoms. The period from the 9th to the 13th century was also characterized by the first territorial expansion of European states out of Europe, while Europe itself was invaded by the Hungarians, a Finno-Ugric people from beyond the Ural Mountains who established their kingdom in the Pannonian Plain.