Art, Architecture and Culture in the Late Middle Ages
Gothic style and Christian motifs dominated art and architecture of the Late Middle Ages. However, the rise of the cities, foundation of universities, increased trade and rise of bourgeois class which patronized art increased the amount of secular motifs, while Italy entered the period of the Renaissance – a cultural movement marked by revival of ideas from classical antiquity and development of linear perspective in painting which spread throughout Europe by the end of the Late Middle Ages.
Replacement of Latin with the vernacular languages and introduction of classical ideas were the most important changes in the literature of the Late Middle Ages. The pioneers of Renaissance humanist literature and promoters of the vernacular languages were Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio and Geoffrey Chaucer.