Science in the Late Middle Ages
The beginning of the Late Middle Ages witnessed the continuation of the intellectual revitalization which started in the 12th century with the emergence of universities and rediscovery of the Arabic and Greek texts, in first place of the works of Aristotle. Science and philosophy of the Late Middle Ages were also greatly influenced by the Renaissance humanist movement which started in Italy in the 14th century.
During the Late Middle Ages greatly increased the interest and knowledge in geography, astronomy and mathematics although the disciplines of natural sciences were not the centre of interest of Renaissance humanists. Arithmetic and geometry became two of the seven liberal arts taught in universities, while the Muslim influences stimulated the study of all branches of mathematics. At the same time also increased interest in physics, chemistry and even in zoology and biology. However, the greatest progress was made in grammar, rhetoric, ethics, poetry and history.